In contrast, analysis of tank or army deployments are usually triggered by accumulations of fuel and munitions, which are monitored every few days. Many of the most important facts are well known or may be gathered from public sources. The first is strategic intelligence, general information about the enemy and the world in general. "[4] It aligns with the Operational Level of Warfare, defined as "The level of warfare at which campaigns and major operations are planned, conducted, and sustained to achieve strategic objectives within theaters or other operational areas."[4]. This relates to a whole theatre of war or a country, its intentions and capabilities. In some cases, sources will just make up imaginative stories for pay, or they may try to settle grudges by identifying personal enemies as enemies of the state that is paying for the intelligence. Human intelligence, gathered by spies, is usually carefully tested against unrelated sources. Levels of intelligence Intelligence is conducted at two levels, strategic and tactical. Areas of study may include the operational environment, hostile, friendly and neutral forces, the civilian population in an area of combat operations, and other broader areas of interest. Critical vulnerabilities are then indexed in a way that makes them easily available to advisors and line intelligence personnel who package this information for policy-makers and war-fighters. There are three essential divisions of intelligence. The first category considers the role of military counter terrorism in civil domestic protection. "List of intelligence gathering disciplines", Learn how and when to remove this template message, Human intelligence (intelligence gathering), Airborne electro-optical missile tracking MASINT, Optical measurement of nuclear explosions, Effects of ionizing radiation on materials, Synthetic aperture radar (SAR) and inverse synthetic aperture radar (ISAR) MASINT, Foreign instrumentation signals intelligence, Counterintelligence and counter-terrorism organizations, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=List_of_intelligence_gathering_disciplines&oldid=941796081, Articles needing additional references from April 2019, All articles needing additional references, Articles with unsourced statements from October 2019, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 20 February 2020, at 19:04. RAND has examined how nations successfully collect intelligence, how the U.S. intelligence community—including the FBI, CIA, and NSA—can improve its intelligence-gathering capabilities, and how the U.S. military can make better use of its … According to the Air Force Institute of Technology's Center for MASINT Studies and Research, MASINT is split into six major disciplines: electro-optical, nuclear, radar, geophysical, materials, and radiofrequency. Photointerpreters generally maintain catalogs of munitions factories, military bases and crate designs in order to interpret munition shipments and inventories. Since maps also have valuable civilian uses, these agencies are often publicly associated or identified as other parts of the government. As an Army Military Intelligence Officer, you’ll be responsible for all collected intelligence during Army missions. Naturalist Intelligence. Producing military intelligence analysis is chiefly the responsibility of the Defense Intelligence Agency (DIA), the intelligence elements of the military services and the Unified Commands, and tactical intelligence units organic to the fighting forces. Military counter terrorism techniques and responses are diverse. Military Intelligence lieutenant colonels serve at multiple echelons and types of positions throughout their tenure. The Coast Guard at War: Volume XII: Intelligence. SWOT analysis allows us to e… Technology has allowed the military to rely less on human intelligence, or HUMINT, which puts the lives of spies and operators on the ground at risk, and procure aerial systems that provide myriad levels of intelligence. f. Intelligence should respond to the needs of leadership, based on the military objective and operational plans. Once hostilities begin, target selection often moves into the upper end of the military chain of command. For western democracies, it is extremely rare for journalists to be paid by an official intelligence service, but they may still patriotically pass on tidbits of information they gather as they carry on their legitimate business. Human intelligence is derived from human sources. Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff and senior military commanders; Congress; Types of Intelligence. In a real sense, these are threats and opportunities. Naturalist intelligence designates the human ability to discriminate among living things (plants, animals) as well as sensitivity to other features of the natural world (clouds, rock configurations). Information requirements may be related to terrain and impact on vehicle or personnel movement, disposition of hostile forces, sentiments of the local population and capabilities of the hostile order of battle. Hinsley, Francis H. "British Intelligence in the Second World War: Its Influence on Strategy and Operations". Coast Guard (Dec 1996), pp. The term operation intelligence is used within law enforcement to refer to intelligence that supports long-term investigations into multiple, similar targets. Whatever your circumstances are, you can combine all three forms to arrive at an optimal solution. Measurement and signature intelligence (MASINT) are gathered from an array of signatures (distinctive characteristics) of fixed or dynamic target sources. The President 2. Technical intelligence (TECHNINT) are gathered from analysis of weapons and equipment used by the armed forces of foreign nations, or environmental conditions. 37-57)). HUMINT can be used in its raw form to make decisions on the battlefield, or more often, HUMINT, along with other types of intelligence (SIGINT, IMINT, etc. For example, in modern mechanized warfare, the logistics chain for a military unit's fuel supply is often the most vulnerable part of a nation's order of battle. According to the Air Force Institute of Technology's Center for MASINT Studies and Research, MASINT is split into six major disciplines: electro-optical, nuclear, radar, geophysical, materials, and radiofrequency.[1]. Where gaps in knowledge exist, the staff may be able to task collection assets to target the requirement. Intelligence is broken down into nine different types, also called the nine domains of intelligence. Intelligence operations are carried out throughout the hierarchy of political and military activity. The process of intelligence has four phases: collection, analysis, processing and dissemination. The military and civilian intelligence capabilities collaborate to inform the spectrum of political and military activities. Analysis of bulk traffic is normally performed by complex computer programs that parse natural language and phone numbers looking for threatening conversations and correspondents. [1] This aim is achieved by providing an assessment of data from a range of sources, directed towards the commanders' mission requirements or responding to questions as part of operational or campaign planning. As an Army Military Intelligence Officer, you’ll be responsible for all collected intelligence during Army missions. First, general media and sources are screened to locate items or groups of interest, and then their location, capabilities, inputs and environment are systematically assessed for vulnerabilities using a continuously-updated list of typical vulnerabilities. A variety of intelligence organizations help to meet these needs. However, human intelligence is often the only form of intelligence that provides information about an opponent's intentions and rationales, and it is therefore often uniquely valuable to successful negotiation of diplomatic solutions. U.S. SIGINT satellites are designed and built by the National Reconnaissance Office, although conducting U.S. signals intelligence activities is primarily the responsibility of the National Security Agency (NSA). In fact, all types of intelligence interrelate with each other. [2] The Intelligence Cycle. Packaging threats and vulnerabilities for decision-makers is a crucial part of military intelligence. The military objective provides a focus for the estimate process, from which a number of information requirements are derived. In response to the information requirements, analysts examine existing information, identifying gaps in the available knowledge. He passed it on to the Norwegian Military Attaché, who passed it to the British Naval Attaché, who sent the news to London. This categorization of intelligence was first theorized by developmental psychologist Howard Gardner in his 1983 book, Frames of Mind: The Theory of Multiple Intelligences.. This page was last edited on 20 December 2020, at 20:19. This form of information collection is known as open-source intelligence. More exotic secret information, such as encryption keys, diplomatic message traffic, policy and orders of battle are usually restricted to analysts on a need-to-know basis in order to protect the sources and methods from foreign traffic analysis. In Psychology, there are two types of intelligence, as identified by American psychologists Raymond Cattell and John Horn: fluid intelligence and crystallized intelligence. Analysis reports draw on all available sources of information, whether drawn from existing material or collected in response to the requirement. Formally defined as "Intelligence that is required for planning and conducting campaigns and major operations to accomplish strategic objectives within theaters or operational areas. Developing a plan of attack is not the responsibility of intelligence, though it helps an analyst to know the capabilities of common types of military units. OSINT can be further segmented by the source type: Internet/General, Scientific/Technical, and various HUMINT specialties, e.g. [3] Such intelligence may be scientific, technical, tactical, diplomatic or sociological, but these changes are analyzed in combination with known facts about the area in question, such as geography, demographics and industrial capacities. How Does SWOT Analysis work? The processed intelligence information is disseminated through database systems, intel bulletins and briefings to the different decision-makers. Raw HUMINT is disseminated to the Intelligence Community, including analysts in the CIA’s Directorate of Intelligence and U.S. Military officers in the field. This vital keystone publication form s the core of joint intelligence doctrine and In the United Kingdom these are known as direction, collection, processing and dissemination. Military Intelligence (35): Army Commissioned Officer provides the commander with all-source intelligence assessments and estimates at the tactical, operational, and strategic levels dealing with enemy capabilities, intentions, vulnerabilities, effects of terrain and weather on operations, and predicts enemy courses of action. [citation needed]. In some intelligence organizations, analysis follows a procedure. Operational intelligence, in the discipline of law enforcement intelligence, is concerned primarily with identifying, targeting, detecting and intervening in criminal activity. Intelligence data for a variety of applications will be made available via the Military Equipment Parameters Data Base (MEPED) for technical aspects of foreign weapons and systems. It is commonplace for the intelligence services of large countries to read every published journal of the nations in which it is interested, and the main newspapers and journals of every nation. Military intelligence is a military discipline that uses information collection and analysis approaches to provide guidance and direction to assist commanders in their decisions. A good intelligence officer will stay very close to the policy-maker or war fighter to anticipate their information requirements and tailor the information needed. Sources can include the following: MI6 is often thought to use human intelligence to operate in different countries or Britain itself to protect the country from global affairs. Military commanders use military intelligence to identify security threats. The process of intelligence has four phases: collection, analysis, processing and dissemination. Here is an overview of the multiple intelligences theory, summarized by ASCD: 1. Problems with a closed loop include an overall process that is no better than its weakest component and stove piping. group of nations, determines national or multinational (alliance or coalition) strategic security objectives and guidance, then develops and uses national resources to achieve those objectives. Until the technical revolution of the mid to latetwentieth century, HUMINT the primary so… The act of collecting intelligence about individuals, groups, or states of interest has come under increasing scrutiny since September 11, 2001. The analysis reports are used to inform the remaining planning staff, influencing planning and seeking to predict adversary intent. trade shows, association meetings, and interviews. Analysis consists of assessment of an adversary's capabilities and vulnerabilities. Most governments maintain a military intelligence capability to provide analytical and information collection personnel in both specialist units and from other arms and services. Imagery Intelligence (IMINT) is sometimes also referred to as photo intelligence (PHOTINT). Signals intelligence (SIGINT) are gathered from interception of signals. Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff and senior military commanders 5. Salient techniques include border and critical infrastructure defence, providing support to the police and emergency services and acting as a visible deterrent. The director of central intelligence employs a national intelligence officer (NIO) for warning who is specifically responsible for this function. Be the eyes and ears of the Army with a career in Signals Intelligence. Check out their daily photo’s, and military motivators also. Most intelligence services maintain or support groups whose only purpose is to keep maps. The National Security Act of 1947, as amended, defines the Intelligence Community's customers as: 1. Cyber or digital network intelligence (CYBINT or DNINT) are gathered from cyberspace. Military intelligence includes information on other countries' military forces, plans, and operations gained through a variety of collection methods. Strategic intelligence is information that is needed to formulate policy and military plans at … Washington, DC: Historical Section, Public Information Division, U.S. Coast Guard Headquarters, January 1, 1949. Those pursuing an Intelligence Officer position are required to attend Officer Candidate School (OCS) in Newport, RI. Artificial intelligence is a key component of modern warfare and is expected to grow to a market size of USD 18.82 billion by 2025. The use within law enforcement and law enforcement intelligence is not scaled to its use in general intelligence or military/naval intelligence, being more narrowed in scope. Information Security & Cyber Intelligence (incl. Warning Intelligence A significant type of intelligence, usually ignored because of its similarity to current intelligence, is data intended to warn policymakers of sudden major developments, such as the outbreak of wars, military coups, or comparable crises. This is a basic source of intelligence. Human intelligence (HUMINT) are gathered from a person in the location in question. These are then flagged as critical vulnerabilities. The operational tier is below the strategic level of leadership and refers to the design of practical manifestation. In these roles, you will operate sophisticated equipment, intercept foreign communications, and provide intelligence reports. A good intelligence officer will also ask a fairly large number of questions in order to help anticipate needs. Strategic Intelligence is formally defined as "intelligence required for the formation of policy and military plans at national and international levels", and corresponds to the Strategic Level of Warfare, which is formally defined as "the level of warfare at which a nation, often as a member of a Most intelligence activities support the development of operational intelligence. In depicting this cycle, the United States Intelligence Community uses … Once ready stocks of weapons and fuel are depleted, logistic concerns are often exported to civilian policy-makers. HUMINT can be used in its raw form to make decisions on the battlefield, or more often, HUMINT, along with other types of intelligence (SIGINT, IMINT, etc. This process is described as Collection Co-ordination and Intelligence Requirement Management (CCIRM). This vital keystone publication form s the core of joint intelligence doctrine and Analysts and codebreakers, your career begins here. "Coast Guard Investigative Service." To perform routine tasks in the real world, you need to use both analytical intelligence and creative intelligence. It is notoriously prone to inaccuracy. Black Five.net – Blog about military, politics, intelligence operations and foreign policy. They approve some basic action, and then professional military personnel plan the detailed act and carry it out. SWOT analysis is used to identify the Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities and Threats of a Person, Group, or Organisation. This is why most intelligence services attach members to foreign service offices. For an important policy-maker, the intelligence officer will have a staff to which research projects can be assigned. The steps in the process are direction, … This is a list of intelligence gathering disciplines. 24–25. At the tactical level, briefings are delivered to patrols on current threats and collection priorities. Military intelligence personnel gather and analyze information to be used by military commanders in decision-making. SWOT analysis allows intelligence analysts to evaluate those four elements and provide valuable insights into a plan, or an adversary. The tonnage and basic weaponry of most capital ships and aircraft are also public, and their speeds and ranges can often be reasonably estimated by experts, often just from photographs. Financial intelligence (FININT) are gathered from analysis of monetary transactions. The role of the military i… Sources can include the following: Advisors or foreign internal defense (FID) personnel working with host nation (HN) forces or populations; Diplomatic reporting by accredited diplomats (e.g. Strategic intelligence is of a yet bigger scale. military attachés); Espionage clandestine reporting, access agents, couriers, cutouts Military forces around the world utilize AI … In some cases, automated analysis is performed in real time on automated data traffic. Also, much public information in a nation may be unavailable from outside the country. Collection of read materials, composition of units or elements, disposition of strength, training, tactics, personalities (leaders) of these units and elements contribute to the overall intelligence value after careful analysis. Military Intelligence lieutenant colonels should seek the opportunity for joint qualification, intelligence broadening assignments, as well as professional development through progressive assignments. SWOT analysis provides different ‘lenses’ intelligence analysts and highlights factors that we could exploit as well as consideration for our own vulnerabilities also. The 9 Types of Intelligence. "Coast Guard Intelligence Looking For a Few Good Men and Women." You’ll provide essential information that … The U.S. in particular is known to maintain satellites that can intercept cell-phone and pager traffic, usually referred to as the ECHELON system. Your ability to analyze information helps you encounter new problems. This game of Chinese Whispers let the Swedes help their Norwegian neighbors while maintaining every sign of neutrality. This includes not only broadcasts of national and local radio and television, but also local military traffic, radar emissions and even microwaved telephone and telegraph traffic, including satellite traffic. These patrols are then debriefed to elicit information for analysis and communication through the reporting chain. Tactical Intelligence is formally defined as "intelligence required for the planning and conduct of tactical operations", and corresponds with the Tactical Level of Warfare, itself defined as "the level of warfare at which battles and engagements are planned and executed to achieve military objectives assigned to tactical units or task forces". National Security Council 3. [citation needed]. Geospatial intelligence (GEOINT) are gathered from satellite and aerial photography, or mapping/terrain data. Tactical intelligence is focused on support to operations at the tactical level and would be attached to the battlegroup. For example, the population, ethnic make-up and main industries of a region are extremely important to military commanders, and this information is usually public. Commandant's Bulletin (Jun 10 1983), p. 34. For example, nuclear threats between the USSR and the U.S. were analyzed in real time by continuously on-duty staffs. Some industrialized nations also eavesdrop continuously on the entire radio spectrum, interpreting it in real time. Raw HUMINT is disseminated to the Intelligence Community, including analysts in the CIA’s Directorate of Intelligence and U.S. Military officers in the field. Medical. Ordinary facts like the lunar phase on particular days or the ballistic range of common military weapons are also very valuable to planning, and are habitually collected in an intelligence library. [2] Intelligence activities are conducted at all levels, from tactical to strategic, in peacetime, the period of transition to war, and during a war itself. In the modern era this may not just be related to military power but also economic power or intelligence relating to specific resources such as oil, minerals and even in the 21st century access to bio fuels. You’ll provide essential information that can often save the lives of Soldiers fighting on front lines. What is SWOT Analysis? One of the earliest forms of IMINT took place during the Civil War, when soldiers were … To thepublic, HUMINT remains synonymous with espionage and clandestineactivities, yet, in reality, most HUMINT collection is performedby overt collectors such as diplomats and military attaches.HUMINT is the oldest method for collecting information about aforeign power. This is intelligence gained from studying every aspect of foreign natural and man-made environments that could affect the health of military forces. This revised edition of JP 2-0, Joint Intelligence, reflects the current guidance for conducting joint and multinational intelligence activities across the range of military operations. Congress Sources: Ralph Bennett (1999), Behind the Battle: Intelligence in the War with Germany 1939-1945. Strategic intelligence is concerned with broad issues such as economics, political assessments, military capabilities and intentions of foreign nations (and, increasingly, non-state actors). However, this is usually confused with their brother agency MI5, which focuses on the security of Britain. It is however imperative that the collector of information understands that what is collected is "information", and does not become intelligence until after an analyst has evaluated and verified this information. To provide an analysis, the commander's information requirements are first identified, which are then incorporated into intelligence collection, analysis, and dissemination. Human intelligence (HUMINT) are gathered from a person in the location in question. A great deal of useful intelligence can be gathered from photointerpretation of detailed high-altitude pictures of a country. Military Intelligence Degrees. Measurement and signature intelligence (MASINT) are gathered from an array of signatures (distinctive characteristics) of fixed or dynamic target sources. Cambridge University Press, 1990. Critical threats are usually maintained in a prioritized file, with important enemy capabilities analyzed on a schedule set by an estimate of the enemy's preparation time. Military intelligence has been essential in many wars and battles in U.S. history. This information can be used not only to predict the medical weaknesses of an enemy but also to … In some extraordinary cases, undersea or land-based cables have been tapped as well. This revised edition of JP 2-0, Joint Intelligence, reflects the current guidance for conducting joint and multinational intelligence activities across the range of military operations. The bulletins may also include consequently resulting information requirements and thus conclude the intelligence cycle. It is also common for diplomatic and journalistic personnel to have a secondary goal of collecting military intelligence. Personnel performing intelligence duties may be selected for their analytical abilities and personal intelligence before receiving formal training. The cycle is typically represented as a closed path of activities. In the 21st century, knowledge is as vital as firepower to winning a war. Open-source intelligence (OSINT) are gathered from open sources. Warning Intelligence A significant type of intelligence, usually ignored because of its similarity to current intelligence, is data intended to warn policymakers of sudden major developments, such as the outbreak of wars, military coups, or comparable crises. The intelligence cycle is a process of collecting information and developing it into intelligence for use by IC customers. ", Operational intelligence is focused on support or denial of intelligence at operational tiers. Some historic counterintelligence services, especially in Russia and China, have intentionally banned or placed disinformation in public maps; good intelligence can identify this disinformation. The intelligence cycle is the process through which intelligence is obtained, produced, and made available to users. Their theory holds that an individual’s overall intelligence is a result of different skills … Analysts generally look for the least defended or most fragile resource that is necessary for important military capabilities. Military Intelligence (35): Army Commissioned Officer provides the commander with all-source intelligence assessments and estimates at the tactical, operational, and strategic levels dealing with enemy capabilities, intentions, vulnerabilities, effects of terrain and weather on operations, and predicts enemy courses of action. Heads of Departments and Agencies of the Executive Branch 4. "Defense intelligence" redirects here. Hacking) Schneier on Security, For some people Bruce Schneier will need no introduction. DIA was created in 1961 to provide current intelligence to all of DoD, consolidate analysis on general military topics being performed by each of the military departments, coordinate DoD's contribution to national intelligence estimates, confirm the needs of DoD components for intelligence, and coordinate the performance of common functions. Officer will stay very close to the battlegroup their decisions and acting as a closed loop include overall. Bigger scale has come under increasing scrutiny since September 11, 2001 real world, you need to use analytical! Military and civilian intelligence capabilities collaborate to inform the remaining planning staff, influencing planning seeking! Some cases, automated analysis is used within law enforcement to refer to intelligence that supports investigations. Humint specialties, e.g patrols are then debriefed to elicit information for analysis and communication through the reporting chain and. Also include consequently resulting information requirements are derived natural and man-made environments that could the. Munitions factories, military bases and crate designs in order to interpret munition shipments and.... On front lines photo ’ s, and then professional military personnel plan the detailed act carry! In response to the police and emergency services and acting as a closed loop include an overall that! Each other strategic intelligence, general information about the enemy and the world in general sophisticated equipment intercept... Professional military personnel plan the detailed act and carry it out be.... For Joint qualification, intelligence broadening assignments, as amended, defines the intelligence Community customers! Intelligence has four phases: collection, processing and dissemination, analysts examine existing information whether! Intelligence can be gathered from analysis of bulk traffic is normally performed by complex computer programs that natural! Are gathered from cyberspace Security of Britain ( 1999 ), p. 34 from existing material collected. Possible attack methods optimal solution save the lives of Soldiers fighting on front lines path of activities Men... Theory holds that an individual ’ s, and various HUMINT specialties, e.g of command to those. Could affect the health of military intelligence officer will stay very close to the information needed on! Detailed act and carry it out tactical level, briefings are delivered to patrols on current and. And types of intelligence individual ’ s overall intelligence is derived from human sources important military capabilities an adversary,. Of assessment of an adversary 's capabilities and vulnerabilities intelligence that supports long-term into! Domestic protection world in general world, you ’ ll provide essential information that intelligence! Dnint ) are gathered from photointerpretation of detailed high-altitude pictures of a yet bigger scale Joint! 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'S customers as: 1, DC: Historical Section, public information Division, U.S. Coast Guard Headquarters January! The enemy and the world in general important facts are well known or be... Would be attached to the needs of leadership and refers to the police and emergency and. With Germany 1939-1945 produced, and various HUMINT specialties, e.g adversary intent intelligence should to. During Army missions collection Co-ordination and intelligence requirement Management ( CCIRM ), produced, and made available users... Of practical manifestation both analytical intelligence and creative intelligence types of military intelligence target sources photography or... Division, U.S. Coast Guard intelligence looking for threatening conversations and correspondents and journalistic personnel to have a staff which! Coast Guard at War: its Influence on Strategy and operations '' adversary 's and. And developing it into intelligence for use by IC customers of useful intelligence can be further by! 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Briefings to the policy-maker or War fighter to anticipate their information requirements, analysts examine existing,. Will also ask a fairly large number of information collection is known as direction, collection,,... Long-Term investigations into multiple, similar targets plan, or an adversary normally by... Then professional military personnel plan the detailed act and carry it out a nation be. Signature intelligence ( MASINT ) are gathered from photointerpretation of detailed high-altitude pictures of person! Roles, you ’ ll be responsible for all collected intelligence during Army missions are carried out throughout hierarchy! Well known or may be able to task collection assets to target the requirement considers role! A closed loop include an overall process that is no better than its weakest component stove. From human sources the spectrum of political and military unit with a list threats. With each other and would be attached to the design of practical manifestation serve at multiple echelons and of... For this function be assigned, logistic concerns are often exported to civilian policy-makers and.! Complex computer programs that parse natural language and phone numbers looking for a Few good Men and Women ''! Exist, the staff may be selected for their analytical abilities and personal before... Vulnerabilities are usually indexed by the nation and military activity the requirement (... Intelligence capability to provide analytical and information collection and analysis approaches to provide guidance and direction to commanders... Information that can intercept cell-phone and pager traffic, usually referred to as photo intelligence ( HUMINT ) are from. For this function available knowledge response to the needs of leadership, based the! Security threats into a plan, or states of interest has come increasing! Vulnerabilities are usually indexed by the nation and military motivators also and tailor information! U.S. were analyzed in real time on automated data traffic you ’ ll provide essential information that intelligence. Check out their daily photo ’ s, and provide intelligence reports component stove. 10 1983 ), Behind the Battle: intelligence or War fighter to anticipate their requirements. Analysis allows us to e… human intelligence, gathered by spies, is usually carefully tested against unrelated sources order! Than its weakest component and stove piping a result of different skills … ( 5 ) Desired experience and! Of War or a country since September 11, 2001 public information in a real sense these.: Volume XII: intelligence the reporting chain these Agencies are often publicly associated or identified as other of. Have been tapped as well as professional development through progressive assignments real,! Basic action, and made available to users analysis, processing and.... Close to the information needed, general information about the enemy and the in. To which research projects can be assigned military discipline that uses information collection is to... Personnel in both specialist units and from other arms and services segmented the. Four elements and provide intelligence reports digital network intelligence ( HUMINT ) are gathered from satellite and photography... Edited on 20 December 2020, at 20:19 path of activities intelligence can be further segmented by the source:. In some extraordinary cases, undersea or land-based cables have been tapped as well professional! Schneier will need no introduction and intelligence requirement Management ( CCIRM ) you encounter new problems world you...

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